Baseball for the Thinking Fan

Login | Register | Feedback

btf_logo
You are here > Home > Baseball Newsstand > Baseball Primer Newsblog > Discussion
Baseball Primer Newsblog
— The Best News Links from the Baseball Newsstand

Wednesday, August 08, 2012

NCAA, four major leagues sue to stop New Jersey plan to allow sports betting

Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, the National Football league and the NCAA filed the lawsuit in federal court in Trenton.

The leagues say New Jersey’s proposal to allow sports betting is “in clear and flagrant violation” of a 1992 federal law, the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act, which restricts betting on collegiate and professional games to four states: Delaware, Montana, Nevada and Oregon. New Jersey was given a chance to become the fifth state, but declined to act during a yearlong window from 1993 to 1994.

Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Griffin (Vlad) Posted: August 08, 2012 at 12:41 PM | 55 comment(s) Login to Bookmark
  Tags: business, gambling, general, legal, new jersey

Reader Comments and Retorts

Go to end of page

Statements posted here are those of our readers and do not represent the BaseballThinkFactory. Names are provided by the poster and are not verified. We ask that posters follow our submission policy. Please report any inappropriate comments.

   1. Brian C Posted: August 08, 2012 at 02:49 PM (#4203481)
IANAL, but my initial question is what standing the sports leagues have to sue here.

My next question is why Chris Christie is such a buffoon:
"I don't believe that the federal government has the right to decide that only certain states can have sports gambling. On what basis?" Christie said.
   2. JJ1986 Posted: August 08, 2012 at 02:53 PM (#4203489)
I don't understand why sports betting is ever illegal anywhere.
   3. RoyalsRetro (AG#1F) Posted: August 08, 2012 at 03:04 PM (#4203513)

IANAL, but my initial question is what standing the sports leagues have to sue here.


They sued Delaware in 2009 for the same thing, and argued that legalizing sports gaming hurts them because it clouds their image of putting forth a clean game with an honest effort.

I believe New Jersey, Delaware, Iowa, and Maryland (Florida and Pennsylvania have discussed it but are waiting to see what happens) are all making a push for legal sports gaming. If those states are successful, many other states will want to follow suit.
   4. Joey B. "disrespects the A" Posted: August 08, 2012 at 03:39 PM (#4203571)
I concur with #2. At the risk of this turning into yet another endless multi-thousand post Red Diaper Baby thread, I think Christie's question here is entirely valid.

I'm not sure why Nevada should be legally entitled to have a quasi-monopoly on sports betting. Especially as more and more different forms of gambling are slowly becoming legal and spreading around the country into more and more places.
   5. Scoriano Flitcraft Posted: August 08, 2012 at 04:04 PM (#4203601)
Christie wants the revenue so he can avoid raising taxes. It's no surprise he likes gambling. I knew his brother's bookie in middle school.
   6. RoyalsRetro (AG#1F) Posted: August 08, 2012 at 04:24 PM (#4203633)

I'm not sure why Nevada should be legally entitled to have a quasi-monopoly on sports betting. Especially as more and more different forms of gambling are slowly becoming legal and spreading around the country into more and more places.


What, legally, prevents the feds from doing this? I agree its unfair and a stupid policy, but legally I'm not seeing what prevents it. To be fair, I haven't given it a ton of thought so I'm sure I'm missing something.
   7. Don Geovany Soto (chris h.) Posted: August 08, 2012 at 04:29 PM (#4203640)
IANAL either, so I have no idea what legally prevents them.

But Christie's question about what gives them the RIGHT to do it is one worth asking. I'm not sure how it's in the public's best interest to prop up state-run monopolies in a few places like Nevada.

But like #6, I haven't given it a ton of thought, either.
   8. Greg K Posted: August 08, 2012 at 04:31 PM (#4203644)
I was amazed upon moving to England at how many sports betting parlours there are everywhere. And casinos appear to be just like any other shop in town.

Is there a marked difference in gambling problems between North America and Europe?

I suppose you could ask the same thing about alcohol. Having spent a month back in Canada in August it was depressing how inconvenient it was to get booze at 2am.
   9. 'zop sympathizes with the wrong ####### people Posted: August 08, 2012 at 04:33 PM (#4203645)

What, legally, prevents the feds from doing this?



The analysis is the other way around. Enumerated powers, &c &c.
   10. RoyalsRetro (AG#1F) Posted: August 08, 2012 at 04:38 PM (#4203652)

The analysis is the other way around. Enumerated powers, &c &c.


Okay, the commerce clause gives Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce. Gambling happens across state lines. So what would stop the feds from letting some states engage in this and others not?
   11. Kurt Posted: August 08, 2012 at 04:56 PM (#4203677)
How does gambling happen across state lines? Passing a law declaring gambling legal in Delaware, Montana, Nevada and Oregon and illegal everywhere else seems like the exact opposite of invoking the commerce clause.
   12. Joey B. "disrespects the A" Posted: August 08, 2012 at 05:02 PM (#4203680)
I think that interstate gambling is prohibited by the Wire Act, and not by this newer law being questioned by Christie.
   13. Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Griffin (Vlad) Posted: August 08, 2012 at 05:04 PM (#4203683)
How does gambling happen across state lines?


In the vast majority of MLB/NBA/NFL/NHL games, one of the teams travels across state lines in order to play the game. That's enough to make the commerce clause applicable, I'd think.
   14. Kurt Posted: August 08, 2012 at 05:29 PM (#4203700)
In the vast majority of MLB/NBA/NFL/NHL games, one of the teams travels across state lines in order to play the game. That's enough to make the commerce clause applicable, I'd think.

I dont think "gambling" in state A includes the act of a team traveling from state B to State C to play the game, any more than the Intergalactic Federation would have jurisdiction over my betting my next door neighbor on what happens with the Mars Rover. Can a NJ resident legally bet on Portland@Phoenix under the full faith and credit clause?
   15. Pops Freshenmeyer Posted: August 08, 2012 at 05:38 PM (#4203704)
The idea of commerce being purely local doesn't carry any weight these days - from a constitutional POV. Businesses use phone lines which cross state lines, the US Postal Service, customers travel from other states and use interstate highways to get there, etc. The SC rulings limiting this power have done so on the basis that certain laws don't actually deal with commerce (firearms being taken to school and the Violence Against Women Act for example).

I have no idea if some other constitutional precept is being violated here but if a court were to hold the commerce clause does not permit such regulation it would be a landmark holding.
   16. Nats-Homer-in-DC Posted: August 08, 2012 at 06:34 PM (#4203753)
#2: Because states should not subsidize or any way incentivize socially-destructive behaviors for the benefit of capturing new sources of tax revenue. It's called public service. Meaning government serves the people, not the people serving government through exploitation of their vices.
   17. Dog on the sidewalk Posted: August 08, 2012 at 06:47 PM (#4203762)
#16, that strikes me as a good reason for there not to be state run lotteries, but not such a convincing argument against legalized gambling. Government officials might want sports betting legalized because of the revenue it would provide, but the reason I and so many others feel it should be legal is because we don't think it's the government's job to protect people from themselves.

Is there a marked difference in gambling problems between North America and Europe?

I suppose you could ask the same thing about alcohol. Having spent a month back in Canada in August it was depressing how inconvenient it was to get booze at 2am.


I've found that people are more or less the same wherever you go. People everywhere love boozing and gambling. The ease with which you can do these things just depends on the laws. I split my time between New York and Las Vegas. The suburbs of Vegas are just like the suburbs of New York, except when you enter a CVS in Vegas you can play slots and buy hard liquor. I'd think drug stores in New York would be very happy to sell liquor and install slot machines if the law allowed it.
   18. RoyalsRetro (AG#1F) Posted: August 08, 2012 at 06:55 PM (#4203766)

I dont think "gambling" in state A includes the act of a team traveling from state B to State C to play the game, any more than the Intergalactic Federation would have jurisdiction over my betting my next door neighbor on what happens with the Mars Rover. Can a NJ resident legally bet on Portland@Phoenix under the full faith and credit clause?


The fact that five sports leagues are suing under the premise that it hurts their interstate commerce suggests to me that gambling affects interstate commerce.
   19. bobm Posted: August 08, 2012 at 07:41 PM (#4203804)
The fact that five sports leagues are suing under the premise that it hurts their interstate commerce suggests to me that gambling affects interstate commerce.

But isn't MLB exempt from anti-trust action because it was deemed not to be interstate commerce? :)
   20. BWV 1129 Posted: August 08, 2012 at 07:48 PM (#4203815)
Is there a marked difference in gambling problems between North America and Europe?

Other than the Euro?
   21. Nats-Homer-in-DC Posted: August 08, 2012 at 08:02 PM (#4203828)
17: That strikes me as a poor argument. Of course governments aim to protect one (and their family and others impacted by their behaviors or lack of alternative behaviors) from themselves. Think suicide, think opportunities denied to those with mental health problems, think penalties on vendors serving the intoxicated, think the informed consent laws that require rationality. Western law does not endorse the position of the most clever and devious to exploit others.

The whole 'live and let live' argument does not make sense when you consider there is an inherent statement of support from the government when they change the laws to allow for it. Perhaps if a court imposed an order citing the existing law was illegal, but the actions of the legislature reflect value judgments. To say nothing of states further legitimizing it by regulating it and taxing it. And to say nothing of states entering partnerships or subsidizing to promote the underlying activity for the benefit of tax revenue.
   22. Dog on the sidewalk Posted: August 08, 2012 at 08:08 PM (#4203832)
Nats, since there's already a giant politics thread, I'll just say that we pretty clearly disagree on what the role of government should be. I don't think either of us is going to convince the other of much beyond that.
   23. Chicago Joe Posted: August 08, 2012 at 09:09 PM (#4203874)
Why don't Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Delaware have massive sportsbooks like Vegas?
   24. Monty Predicts a Padres-Mariners WS in 2016 Posted: August 08, 2012 at 09:24 PM (#4203883)
Is the NCAA pretending that it's important to their business that March Madness pools be illegal? I don't get that at all.
   25. Kurt Posted: August 08, 2012 at 10:18 PM (#4203915)
Is the NCAA pretending that it's important to their business that March Madness pools be illegal? I don't get that at all.

Yes, and I can't imagine what would ever happen to the NFL if people started betting on their games.
   26. McCoy Posted: August 08, 2012 at 11:02 PM (#4203947)
Why don't Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Delaware have massive sportsbooks like Vegas?

Because they are Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and Delaware.
   27. Brian C Posted: August 08, 2012 at 11:36 PM (#4203969)
Because they are Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and Delaware.

Verily. But on the other hand, Nevada is Nevada, and they've made it work.
   28. SteveF Posted: August 08, 2012 at 11:40 PM (#4203973)
Is there no equal protection/due process argument here via the 5th amendment? Or is enumerated powers/commerce clause the 600 lb. gorilla in this argument?

I can see the constitutional argument, but the other states have got senators/representatives too. It's not like the other states don't have the legislative power to demand an even playing field, one way or the other.
   29. Bob Tufts Posted: August 09, 2012 at 12:48 AM (#4204005)
The NCAA sends people to Las Vegas to watch the boards and see if any lines move in a mysterious way.

I always wanted to sue MLB and the MLBPA for allowing casinos to use my work as a player without proper compensation. And if that didn't work, try to acquire the use of MLB team names for my own commercial use. If MLB lets Vegas use team names and post odds for profit, what prevents me from trying to use team names for profit, as MLB is not actively protecting their names despite knowledge of their economic usage by others?
   30. The District Attorney Posted: August 09, 2012 at 12:58 AM (#4204011)
I always wanted to sue MLB and the MLBPA for allowing casinos to use my work as a player without proper compensation.
A while back, there were cases where players challenged fantasy baseball games as violating their right of publicity. What I got out of the legal back-and-forth here on the issue was that it would in fact be problematic for a casino to offer a bet that Bob Tufts would win 20 games¹. But, the casinos claim that they don't offer such bets, and I don't think you could argue that you can exercise the rights of the Kansas City Royals because you represent 4% of their major league roster. Although, that would be funny.

¹ Not to mention unprofitable!
   31. McCoy Posted: August 09, 2012 at 01:02 AM (#4204014)
MLB lost.
   32. SteveF Posted: August 09, 2012 at 03:55 AM (#4204042)
Doing minor research, standing for the sports organizations to sue is granted by The Bradley Act:

A civil action to enjoin a violation of section 3702 may be commenced in an appropriate district court of the United States by the Attorney General of the United States, or by a professional sports organization or amateur sports organization whose competitive game is alleged to be the basis of such violation.


A different question is how can the state be sued at all here? The 11th amendment precludes states from being sued without their consent, doesn't it? Presumably New Jersey isn't consenting.
   33. SteveF Posted: August 09, 2012 at 04:05 AM (#4204043)
Never mind the point about the 11th amendment. 11th amendment doesn't apply to suits to enforce article 1 powers.
   34. Swoboda is freedom Posted: August 09, 2012 at 07:52 AM (#4204073)
The NCAA sends people to Las Vegas to watch the boards and see if any lines move in a mysterious way.

Like a fly on the wall?
   35. RoyalsRetro (AG#1F) Posted: August 09, 2012 at 08:56 AM (#4204095)

Why don't Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Delaware have massive sportsbooks like Vegas?


All four of those states have the option to have sports gaming under federal law, but have never elected to use that right until 2009 when Delaware legalized it in their state legislature.

I believe even now, their sports wagering is pretty limited, nothing like what you can wager on in Nevada.
   36. Howie Menckel Posted: August 09, 2012 at 09:25 AM (#4204122)
Correct.
The legal argument is that Congress banned ALL sports betting in 1992, in all states
(Pause)

Oh, Nevada already had full sports betting, so Congress couldn't take it away. The other 3 (Montana, Oregon, Delaware) only had limited sports betting, and they can have that as well.

The Delaware case was them saying they wanted Vegas-style betting, since they had NFL betting in 1992 already. But the court ruled that they only had those parlay-style bets (the 'tickets' where you'd bet 4 games at 10 to 1 odds, basically), so that's all they can offer at their casinos now. Which they do, but they don't get a ton of business because they can't do straight bets.

Incidentally, the law was sponsored by ex-Knick/US Sen (from NJ) Bill Bradley, who said he didn't care to be treated like a "poker chip" by bettors.
   37. Joey B. "disrespects the A" Posted: August 09, 2012 at 09:55 AM (#4204156)
Which is rather odd when you consider that in most cases the legal argument usually made is that federal law supersedes state law.

Say that some states have a law requiring certain people to pay a poll tax. When congress and the president later on pass a law banning all poll taxes, the courts don't usually say that certain states are "grandfathered" in and get an exception.

So I'm still not sure exactly what is so special about sports betting that it can have this sort of special legal niche carved out.
   38. tjm1 Posted: August 09, 2012 at 10:07 AM (#4204167)
Which is rather odd when you consider that in most cases the legal argument usually made is that federal law supersedes state law.


The Constitution is explicit on this - where there's joint jurisdiction, federal law takes precedence. The issue is probably that Congress chose to make exemptions for states that already had sports betting, not that Congress had to do that or the courts forced them to do it. If they hadn't made exceptions, they might well have faced filibusters. The NV sports books are a big business in Nevada, and the Orregon football betting is run by the state.

Regarding the discussion of whether the state should protect people from their worst demons: one can argue that legal, regulated gambling leads to harm-reduction relative to gambling with illegal bookies. The bookies can probably be put out of business by legal gambling, and then the opportunity to gamble on credit with money you don't have will go away. Bookies now assume you can pay up and then go after you if you don't. If all the people who legitimately can pay up choose legal gambling, there will be basically nowhere to bet for the people who can't pay up.
   39. Joey B. "disrespects the A" Posted: August 09, 2012 at 10:15 AM (#4204177)
The issue is probably that Congress chose to make exemptions for states that already had sports betting, not that Congress had to do that or the courts forced them to do it. If they hadn't made exceptions, they might well have faced filibusters. The NV sports books are a big business in Nevada, and the Oregon football betting is run by the state.

Well, if what you say is true then what Howie Menckel said in post #36 isn't really true, and we're right back to Christie's question as to what the basis is for Congress to do something like that.
   40. I am going to be Frank Posted: August 09, 2012 at 10:30 AM (#4204196)
If NJ were to win the lawsuit, would it be allowed to do Vegas-style betting? I am very bad at sports betting but throwing $20 on a game makes things much more fun. I basically got into watching soccer by throwing $20 on Mexico to beat Argentina in the 2006 World Cup.
   41. Bitter Mouse Posted: August 09, 2012 at 10:51 AM (#4204231)
As always I am conflicted on the topic of gambling and regulation of it, and so have very little to add. I feel adrift without a strong opinion. Sigh.
   42. The District Attorney Posted: August 09, 2012 at 11:00 AM (#4204254)
If MLB lets Vegas use team names and post odds for profit, what prevents me from trying to use team names for profit, as MLB is not actively protecting their names despite knowledge of their economic usage by others?
Anyone who plays Strat-O-Matic knows that you don't get the Boston Red Sox, you get "Boston." (It'd be funny to check and see whether the casinos actually abide by this.)
   43. Greg K Posted: August 09, 2012 at 11:08 AM (#4204270)
As always I am conflicted on the topic of gambling and regulation of it, and so have very little to add. I feel adrift without a strong opinion. Sigh.

I always feel like posting a variation on this in all the politics threads. But usually end up just soaking up other people's opinions until someone brings up something history related.
   44. A big pile of nonsense (gef the talking mongoose) Posted: August 09, 2012 at 11:10 AM (#4204273)
As always I am conflicted on the topic of gambling and regulation of it, and so have very little to add. I feel adrift without a strong opinion. Sigh.


Have you tried being vehemently ambivalent?

Strident apathy might be worth looking into as well.

Or not.

Who cares?
   45. Swedish Chef Posted: August 09, 2012 at 11:31 AM (#4204305)
In Sweden the government runs gambling*, ostensibly to promote social responsibility. That is pretty transparent though, they market the hell out of the games, they even have "Easy to win" as a slogan for a Keno game, complete with TV ads featuring slackers making a living playing a game that returns 40% or so to the punters. I really, really hate those ads**, it's a nice income source for the state though.

All but casual sports gamblers also use foreign sites though, I certainly do. Single games have lousy odds at the monopoly, they have done a clever thing though, they give reasonable odds on a win for either side and a totally horrendous one for the draw. That way they can compete with sites that have better returns to the punters, as most don't want to bet the draw anyway.

*) Except the horses, that is run by a company owned by the tracks, though they pay gambling taxes.
**) Is that's why the government shows little interest in enhancing our crappy math eduction?
   46. Bitter Mouse Posted: August 09, 2012 at 11:50 AM (#4204319)
45. Lizard Freak Healer (Swedish Chef) Posted: August 09, 2012 at 11:31 AM (#4204305)

In Sweden the government runs gambling


It never occured to me before that Swedish Chef was actually from (or lived in) Sweden.
   47. Swedish Chef Posted: August 09, 2012 at 12:01 PM (#4204325)
It never occured to me before that Swedish Chef was actually from (or lived in) Sweden.

Maybe I shöuld put döts över all my ö:s. Just as a reminder.
   48. Kurt Posted: August 09, 2012 at 12:03 PM (#4204327)
So I'm still not sure exactly what is so special about sports betting that it can have this sort of special legal niche carved out.

$$$$$$$$. If NJ gambling interests could pull together enough capital to get Congress in their back pocket the way Vegas has, NJ would have sports betting.
   49. bunyon Posted: August 09, 2012 at 12:10 PM (#4204331)
I may or may not be Vroomfondel!
   50. manchestermets Posted: August 09, 2012 at 04:08 PM (#4204639)
I was amazed upon moving to England at how many sports betting parlours there are everywhere.


Gambling was heavily deregulated in the UK in 2005, and since then there has been a huge extension both to the number of betting shops, and their opening hours. There was never any shortage of betting shops, but from observation I'd guess that the number has tripled since then. Before then, opening hours were limited - Sunday opening was a recent innovation, and the shops would only open in the evening when there was racing happening, so 4 or 5 nights a week in the summer. Now they're pretty much open 9am-10pm seven days a week, and if there's no racing happening in the UK then they'll show any racing they can find anywhere in the world, or they show virtual racing.

And casinos appear to be just like any other shop in town.


I'm not sure what you mean here. In truth, the distinction between betting shops and casinos has shrunk, as the betting shops have installed Fixed odds betting terminals. In theory these could be any kind of game, but in effect are all roulette machines. Although less heavily regulated than before 2005, casinos are still more heavily regulated than betting shops, so I'm not entirely sure why the betting shops are allowed these - they effectively turn the betting shop into a low rent casino.

Is there a marked difference in gambling problems between North America and Europe?


There are claims that the 2005 changes have led to an increase in the number of problem gamblers, but a cursory google search suggests that the most extreme figures produced are only at the edges of statistical significance. What I can say is that in my opinion, betting shops are far less pleasant places than they used to be - 15-20 years ago when I used to work in them they were largely social places where regulars would come and spend the day betting in relatively small amounts on the day's racing, then go home. I wouldn't dream of working in one now, due to the ridiculous opening hours and the change in the clientele - most of the people who'd spend the day betting on the horses have migrated to online betting, and the roulette machines draw a different kind of client entirely, and there are reports of staff being threatened. In short, I was in favour of the changes before they were introduced, but in retrospect I'm, less sure.

Re this New Jersey thing, I've no idea of the relevant constitutional law, but for a federal government to be able to give a subset of states a monopoly over any field of commercial enterprise instinctively seems wrong.
   51. Karl from NY Posted: August 09, 2012 at 08:56 PM (#4204870)
The Delaware case was them saying they wanted Vegas-style betting, since they had NFL betting in 1992 already. But the court ruled that they only had those parlay-style bets (the 'tickets' where you'd bet 4 games at 10 to 1 odds, basically), so that's all they can offer at their casinos now. Which they do, but they don't get a ton of business because they can't do straight bets.

Couldn't you synthesize a straight bet with a composition of these parlay bets? If you want to bet on say LAA over TEX, you bet a set of parlays with that and also with every possible combination of three other games, like LAD/SFG and also SFG/LAD, and so on.

Is there a marked difference in gambling problems between North America and Europe?

Maybe not, but there is a marked difference in which one has legal structures that descend from Puritans legislating others' morals.
   52. Howie Menckel Posted: August 09, 2012 at 09:27 PM (#4204886)
"The issue is probably that Congress chose to make exemptions for states that already had sports betting, not that Congress had to do that or the courts forced them to do it."

yes, I meant to type "didn't" instead of "couldn't" in Post 36.

they chose not to take away what few states had something, and they gave NJ a unique 1-yr window to legalize sports betting (NJ had Atlantic City casinos by then). but the referendum never made it onto the ballot in 1993 (Republicans had tight race with Whitman vs Florio, and felt putting sports betting on ballot would hurt their gubernatorial chances), so the window closed permanently (so far).
   53. SteveF Posted: August 09, 2012 at 09:37 PM (#4204899)
they chose not to take away what few states had something


Is discriminating among the states in this fashion permitted by the 5th amendment? 14th amendment equal protection only applies to states, but the 5th amendment due process has been interpreted as requiring equal protection by the federal government. Given what Christie has said, this could be the nature of their core legal argument.

There's no question Congress has the right to declare sports betting illegal in all 50 states. The question is whether it is allowed to declare it illegal in some fraction of states.

We have plenty of lawyers around here. Does anyone have a definitive answer to that question?
   54. Howie Menckel Posted: August 09, 2012 at 10:12 PM (#4204918)
yes, the whole suit is only 12 pages, mostly boilerplate. there's only one Count, and it only seeks an a-b-c-d-e (five things).

facts not in dispute - the 1992 federal law says one thing, and NJ law now says another. Is the 1992 law Constitutional? So the case is very simple AND of course complicated.

http://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/complaint-for-declaratory-injunctive-r-20931/

another complication could be that states control horse racing, jai alai, lottery, and other gambling. why not pro/college team sports betting, too, the advocates ask.

10th amendment case is made as well as 5th and 14th (and no, I'm not a lawyer).


   55. SteveF Posted: August 09, 2012 at 11:45 PM (#4204987)
I shouldn't say there's no question Congress could make sports betting illegal in all 50 states given the 10th amendment, but the courts have, as a practical matter, interpreted the commerce clause so broadly that they've allowed the federal government to pass nearly any law it wants under the guise of interstate commerce.

You must be Registered and Logged In to post comments.

 

 

<< Back to main

BBTF Partner

Support BBTF

donate

Thanks to
The Id of SugarBear Blanks
for his generous support.

Bookmarks

You must be logged in to view your Bookmarks.

Page rendered in 0.6535 seconds
53 querie(s) executed